Golden Bay, now known for its pristine coastline and National Parks, was once home to a wide range of industries, many of which have now gone. The Tarakohe Cement works is one these industries.
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Early surveys in Golden Bay showed there were abundant materials for the production of Portland cement1, witha 30 metre thick belt of tertiary arenaceous limestone extending over about 24 square km at Tarakohe.2
While there had been attempts to get a cement factory up and running in the late 1800s, it wasn't until 1908 that some Nelson and Wellington businessmen established the Golden Bay Cement Company with capital of £60,000.3 No doubt they were keen to profit from the building and public works boom in New Zealand at the time.4
A timber wharf was built in 1910 and cement production was underway by November 1911.5 The first cement was loaded onto a small boat by men standing up to their waists in the sea, then rowed out to the SS Kaitoa.6 In strong onshore winds, vessels departing Tarakohe wharf hauled themselves out to sea by passing a rope through a ring on a buoy.7
A close knit community formed around the cement works. Initially a boarding house, office and manager's office were built and single men and a few families lived under canvas. The Pohara Hall, funded by the Cement Workers Union and built in 1924, was a popular venue for movies and social events and the Nelson Education Board built a small school in 1956.8
The cement works struggled through the Great Depression: "The Golden Bay cement works, after a period of idleness of nearly two years is once again in full swing at Tarako'he. The ever-increasing demand for cement in the erection of modern buildings finds the Dominion prepared with three payable deposits, one in the north, one in Otago, and the other at Golden Bay," reported the Evening Post in 1923.9
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In June, 1929, the Murchison Earthquake ripped limestone from the cliffs which crashed onto the cement works' powerhouse and killed an engineer.10
The company was still not up to full capacity by the start of World War 2 and, in 1949, the New Zealand Government exhorted the cement industry to greater production to help the country get back on its feet.11
Transporting cement around New Zealand was expensive and, in 1955, the M.V. Golden Bay was launched and bulk shipment of cement began.12 The slightly larger Ligar Bay was commissioned in 1964, and the two vessels carried their heavy cargo to Deep Cove, Fiordland, where it was offloaded for the Manapouri Hydro Scheme.13
Wharfside depot installations were built at Wellington, Wanganui and New Plymouth to receive the bulk cement. The Golden Bay Cement Co also had its own fleet of bulk cement trucks, the largest of which could carry 23 tonnes.14
Sales of cement reached a peak in the mid-1970s and the company expanded production to 400,000 tonnes. The new port was very busy for more than eight years15 until the end of the 1970s when the country's Think Big projects, hydro dams, high rise buildings and huge sewerage schemes were completed. 16
In 1983, the company gained a contract to supply 96,000 tonnes of cement to the huge Clyde Dam project.17 However the writing was on the wall and The Golden Bay Cement Company merged with Wilson's Portland Cement in 1983. By 1985, redundancies saw the staff of 400 employees reduced to 150 workers.
New owners, Fletcher Challenge, closed the works on 13 September 1988.18 The small Lee Valley plant was closed in 1998. The company is still operating as Golden Bay Cement today, but its manufacturing operations have been concentrated at Portland, 8km south of Whangarei.
After working 80 years around the clock, the Tarakohe works fell silent. Demand had been falling since 1974 and the loss of import protection was the last straw. The closure of the factory was a major blow to Golden Bay.19
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The port continued to operate and in 1994, the Tasman District Council bought the harbour facilities for $275,000, expanding them to meet the needs of recreational boaties, commercial fishermen and operators.20
Industrial Golden Bay
At one time, it seemed that Golden Bay would develop into a significant industrial area. "With improved roads and modern motor traffic, coupled with the introduction of large numbers of public works and industrial workers, the whole future outlook of Golden Bay is rapidly undergoing a complete change. The coming of the iron and steel works, the opening of large asbestos deposits and the introduction of hydro-electric power must certainly provide the district with an industrial complex in place of the present farming one," The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 14, Issue 7 (October 2, 1939)
- The Onekaka Iron Works opened in 1922.
- Marble from Takaka Hill used in the construction of the new Parliament Buildings in 1911 may have been taken out over Tarakohe wharf
- Asbestos first surveyed in the Cobb in 1882, was worked from 1940 to 1964
- The short-lived Aorere gold mines of 1856
Sources used in this story
- Smith, J. H. (2002). Tarakohe: Golden Bay Cement works 1908-1988. Takaka, New Zealand. p3
- Newport, J. N. W. (1975). Golden Bay: one hundred years of local government. Takaka, New Zealand: Golden Bay County Council, p 107.
- Newport, J.N.W. (1980) . Some Golden Bay Industries (Continued) Nelson Historical Society Journal 3(6)
- McAloon, Jim. (1997) Nelson: A Regional History. Cape Catley Ltd, p 128
- Newport (1975), p 90
- Smith, p6
- Tasman Ports Timeline (Prow Story)
- Smith, p 21-23
- Work Resumed (1923, September 13) Evening Post, p.10 http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19230913.2.119
- Neal, T., & A. Dunn (Ed.). (2006).Tarakohe: a community port. Richmond, New Zealand: Tasman District Council, p12
- Smith, p 9- 10
- Blincoe, P (2001). Yesterdays of Golden Bay: glimpses of past industries and PWD camps. Collingwood, New Zealand: Blincoe Publishing, p 86
- Neal, T., & A. Dunn (Ed.) p 19
- Blincoe, p86
- Smith, p29
- Smith, p 34
- Smith, p 18
- Blincoe, p 86
- McAloon, p 229
- Tasman Ports Timeline
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Further sources - Tarakohe Cement
- Blincoe, P (2001). Yesterdays of Golden Bay: glimpses of past industries and PWD camps. Collingwood, New Zealand: Blincoe Publishing,.p. 81-88.
- Neal, T., & A. Dunn (Ed.). (2006).Tarakohe: a community port. Richmond, New Zealand: Tasman District Council.
- Newport, J. N. W. (1975). Golden Bay: one hundred years of local government. Takaka, New Zealand: Golden Bay County Council, p.106-107.
- Smith, J. H. (2002). Tarakohe: Golden Bay Cement works 1908-1988. Takaka, New Zealand.[held Tasman District Libraries]
- Ansley, Bruce (1988, November 5). Golden Bay: end of the rainbow. Listener 122 (2540), p.20-23.
- Cement Works. (1910. January 14) Grey River Argus, p.3
- Fatality at Golden Bay (1929, June 17) Evening Post, p. 10
- Gale, H. (2011, April 13) Tarakohe a precious asset. Nelson Mail. Retrieved from Stuff:
- Golden Bay Cement Company (1920, July 15) Evening Post, p.8
- An important industry (1912, Feb 20) The Colonist, p.2
- Newport, J. N. W. (1980, October/November). Some Golden Bay industries (continued). Journal of the Nelson Historical Society 3 (6), p..30-36.
- Restraint of trade. (1921, October 5) Evening Post, p.9
- Takaka cement works (1911, February 2) Nelson Mail, p.4
- Wilson, N. (2010) Port Tarakohe's commercial future. Golden Bay Weekly
- The Nelson Provincial Museum. (1996, March 9). Predicted life short-lived. Nelson Mail, p. 12.
- An Assessment of the social and economic impact of the possible closure of the Golden Bay Cement Works at Tarakohe : a report to the Minister of Regional Development (1985) Wellington [N.Z.] : Town and Country Planning Directorate, Ministry of Works and Development
- Reilly, C., B. Haile & K. Delany (2008) Golden Bay Cement Company 1940s to 1950s [DVD]. Takaka, Golden Bay: Golden Bay High School Home & School Association.[held Tasman District Libraries]
- Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand. Brief History of the Cement Industry in New Zealand. Retrieved 13 February 2012
- Golden Bay Cement - the Company. Retrieved 13 February 2012:
- Tasman District Council: Golden Bay webcam at Port Tarakohe:
Walrond, Clark. (2009_ Rock, Limestone and Clay: Cement, marble and dolomite. Retrieved from Te Ara: the Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand.